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Nuclear Reactions During his investigations on the scattering of alpha particles by nuclei, Rutherford noticed that certain light elements could be disintegrated by these alpha particles. In 1919, he placed an alpha particle source inside a box that could be filled with various gases. A zinc sulphide screen was placed outside the box to detect scintillations. When the box was filled with nitrogen, scintillations were seen on the screen. These scintillations could not have been produced by alpha particles since the distance between the source and the screen was greater than the range of alpha particles in the gas.

After the war it was declassified and published, selling more than 50,000 copies. Segr`e also mentions that the “first modest table of isotopes was published by a student in our Rome group in the 1930s”, see G. Fea [7]. One of the earliest 32 2. Nuclear Energetics Fig. 5. Nuclide stability diagram. Stable nuclides (black) fall in a narrow range of neutron to proton ratio. Unstable nuclides (white) have neutron to proton ratios outside this range. Also shown are the proton and neutron magic numbers represented by the horizontal and vertical lines nuclides charts was complied by G.

It is for this reason that energy can be released by splitting heavy elements or by fusing light elements. Notable departures from the smooth behaviour of the binding energy per nucleon vs. the mass number are provided by 4 He, 12 C, 16 O. The binding energies per nucleon of these isotopes are higher than their immediate neighbours indicating that they are very strongly bound. These nuclei contain respectively one, three, and four sub-units of 4 He. This tends to suggest that nucleons form stable sub-groups of two protons and two neutrons within the nucleus.

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A guide to making energy-smart purchases by Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (U.S.)

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